Although TG-MS allows real-time monitoring, it can be confusing due to overlapping events and higher mass ions obscuring those of lower mass. By adding gas chromatography (GC) to the system, these events can be cleanly separated and very low levels of impurities detected.
Heating a sample on the TGA causes a sample to release volatile materials or generate combustion components as it burns. These gases are then transferred to the GC, where the components can be collected on a trapping media, in a gas sampling loop, or deposited on the head of a column. The sample can then be run by GC to separate the material, and the peaks identified by the MS. Because of its ability to detect very low levels of material in complex mixtures, the TG-GC/MS is a powerful tool for quality control, safety, and product development.
21 Business Insights
As the demand for solar power continues to grow, there needs to be a clear focus on different key issues in the life cycle of a solar cell. These issues are: efficiency, durability and cost. Coupling PerkinElmer’s application knowledge and experience together with our product portfolio, we can help manufacturers overcome these obstacles. At PerkinElmer, we’re taking action to ensure the quality of our environment.
Designed specifically to meet the requirements of the Caterpillar? S.O.SSM program, the JOAP program, and the new ASTM? Methods D7412, D7414, D7415, D7418, Spectrum? OilExpress is the fastest, most cost-effective Oil Condition Monitoring (OCM) solution for busy test laboratories. OilExpress also uses less than half the solvent required by competing systems, dramatically reducing day-to-day operating costs and making laboratories more competitive.
The intensifying global emphasis on developing sustainable fuel supplies has led to increasing use of fuels derived from biological sources. In this note we show that the Spectrum Two? FT-IR spectrometer (Figure 1) can be used to develop a quantitative method with sufficient sensitivity to meet the required detection limits for methanol, water, C3–C5 alcohols and gasoline denaturant, while requiring less than two minutes of analysis time per sample.
The concept of High-Throughput Design has gained more and more interest as a way to increase profitability and to decrease research costs. One technique that can increase the ability of a laboratory to evaluate formulations is HyperDSC? or High Ramping Rate DSC. HyperDSC is the ability to quantitatively measure small samples at extreme heating and cooling rates, typically 100-500 °C/min.
Where ?Cp and ?Cp pure are the changes in specific heat at the glass transition temperature, Tg, for the composite, and for the unfilled polymer, respectively. This work suggests an alternative method for determining Cp that takes advantage of fast heating and cooling rates to obtain quantitative Cp in the upper temperature region without having to dwell in that high temperature region to establish an upper isothermal.
The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the proximate analysis of two standard samples using the STA and show that the performance is easily able to allow this moderate cost, small profile and sturdy instrument to be used for this type of routine analysis.
Many pharmaceutical materials exhibit polymorphism, which means that, depending upon the given processing conditions, the crystalline form may exist in two or more states. The crystalline states or forms exhibit different levels of thermodynamic stabilities and an unstable form can melt at a temperature significantly less than the melting point of the thermodynamically stable form. Depending upon the conditions used to generate the crystalline form(s), the drug may exhibit one or more unstable, polymorphic crystalline states.
Cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS) has similarities with the better known cavity ringdown technique (CRDS) which measures the signal decay as a laser pulse emerges through one of the mirrors after successive reflections. By measuring the increase in the rate of decay caused by an absorbing species, CRDS can measure ppb concentrations of small molecules. The ringdown technique has typically been applied to small molecules where the wavelength of a NIR laser source can be tuned across very narrow individual lines of the spectra. In contrast this report describes CEAS using a broadband source applied to larger molecules where the spectra are broader.
Infrared spectroscopy is particularly suitable for the identification of materials, even when the differences between the materials are subtle variations in complex mixtures. In this note we demonstrate that biodiesel from several common feedstocks can be distinguished on the basis of absorption bands arising from double bonds in the fatty acid chains.
A gas chromatographic analysis of the extract can provide even greater sensitivity and more detailed compositional information, but further increases the time required for the analysis. Thermogravimetric analysis coupled to infrared spectroscopy (TG-IR) can provide detailed information about the amount and nature of the pollution, while requiring no sample preparation at all. This application note illustrates the kind of data that can be obtained with a modern TG-IR system.
The use of IR imaging expands the measurement possibilities by giving information about the individual types of materials present in the collected particles. The information from the IR imaging experiment is not only qualitative (i.e. identification of the particulates), but can also be calibrated to give quantitative information on the components present. The IR imaging measurement will take only five minutes, whereas Ion Chromatography requires solvent extraction of the particulates and would take around 20-25 minutes per sample
IR spectroscopy is an ideal method for quantifying benzene at the concentration levels required, and there are several standard methods for this measurement, all of which utilize the distinctive C–H out-of-plane deformation band at around 673 cm-1. While this band is characteristic of benzene, toluene and xylenes have some weak absorption at this frequency that can interfere with the results if high concentrations are present.
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